Encyclopedia of Electronic Circuits Volume 1 by Rudolf Graf, William Sheets

By Rudolf Graf, William Sheets

Diagrams and describes the elemental circuits utilized in alarms, switches, voltmeters, battery chargers, modulators, receivers, transmitters, oscillators, amplifiers, converters, pulse turbines, and box power meters.

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Since the interconnect capacitance dominates in a shift register, the power consumed inside the registers can be neglected. Given the total capacitance at the input and at the output and the activity factor equal for the input and for the output of the register, the power can be approximated with: The power for input/output operations is the power needed by the input/output registers which are clocked at the rate needed to communicate with the outside world. In a single chip solution, the dominant term, in most of the cases, remains the computational power.

1. Transconductance The transconductance of a transistor is limited at the upper side by velocity saturation. In velocity saturation region, the transcoductance becomes constant, independent of gate length or bias: For an effective width of the saturated transconductance has a value of about for a process. In many analog circuits tuning for process spreads by increasing the current is not effective once the velocity saturation region is trespassed. In some applications, weak inversion region can be used in order to deliver the maximum transconductance for a given current.

Vittoz, “Future of analog in the VLSI environment”, in Proc. 1372-1375, 1990 [8] Semiconductor Industry Association, “The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors” 1997, pp. 46-47. J. L. Meerbergen and J. 398-403, 1995 [10] T. Sakuta, W. Lee and P. Balsara, “Delay Ballanced multipliers for low power, low voltage DSP core”, 1995 Symp. on low power electronics, Dig. Tech. Papers, pp. R. W. Brodersen, “ Low power digital CMOS design”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell MA, 02061 USA and Dordrecht, The Netherlands, ISBN 0-7923-9576-X.

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