By Hans Jurgen Grabke, Michael Schutze
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Additional resources for Corrosion by Carbon and Nitrogen: Metal Dusting, Carburisation and Nitridation (EFC 41)
B) SAED pattern from the M3C/carbon interface. (c) High-resolution TEM image showing graphite fringes. and undergo further disintegration with continued carbon transfer. A selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, taken in the M3C/carbon interfacial area at a beam orientation of B =  Fe3C, Fig. 5b, confirms that the carbon deposit is a mixture of amorphous and graphitic carbon. The reflection from graphite (002) plane is highly diffused, indicating amorphous carbon. 5c, a high-resolution TEM image of the carbon deposit, confirms that the nature of the carbon deposit on the surface of M3C is predominantly amorphous (~80%), the rest being graphitic.
Cr diffusion is relatively fast and increases with the Ni content of the alloys. However, the widely used Alloy 600 with only 15–16% Cr is not resistant, and many failure cases have been reported. On Alloy 600 sometimes general attack was observed, but mostly relatively flat pits spread gradually over the surface. In laboratory exposures at 650 ∞C (Fig. 36 mm/year; this rate is nearly two orders of magnitude slower than that of steels. 4% Al is more resistant, but this alloy is susceptible to local pitting.
After exposures for 1–2 days the coke was removed and its metal content was determined by chemical analysis. The rates of metal wastage (in mg/cm2 h) were constant and independent of time from the start. At 475 ∞C experiments in various gas mixtures were conducted and the rate of metal wastage was shown to be independent of carbon and oxygen activity . 8 for metal wastage (mM) per unit area A and time. e. the cementite decomposition occurs by inward growth of graphite . Studies on various steels yield one line in the Arrhenius plot log rM vs.