Addiction (Psychological Disorders) by Vatsal Thakkar

By Vatsal Thakkar

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As described earlier, once a person becomes “hooked,” the body may go through significant withdrawal symptoms if it doesn’t get the drug. These are often very unpleasant and sometimes lethal. One sure way to relieve withdrawal symptoms is to use more of the drug. 7 Herein lies the vicious cycle of addiction: A person may try a Causes of Addiction drug out of curiosity, then continue to use it because of the pleasure-reward addiction circuit. Then the person cannot stop using the drug because withdrawal symptoms occur if he or she tries to stop.

He was charged with driving under the influence of cannabis, and his license was suspended. Brian was first introduced to marijuana by his girlfriend, who uses it every day, and whose mother also uses marijuana. Ancient and Historical Uses of Marijuana • A “food of the gods” in ancient India • Used as a medicine in China to relieve pain and cure ailments • Zulu warriors in Africa smoked marijuana prior to battle • Human sacrifices were given marijuana to prepare them for death • African Bashilange tribes gave marijuana to criminals as a “truth agent” to encourage them to confess • Japanese women burned marijuana to drive away evil spirits • Used in Japanese wedding ceremonies to promote monogamy • Used in medieval Europe to hasten the wedding day of young women • Used in Ireland to help a woman foretell her future husband • Used in Iran to achieve spiritual insight Later medicinal uses have been to ease menstrual discomfort and the pain of childbirth, and marijuana had been prescribed for such things as depression, cough, jaundice, inflammation, tumors, arthritis, gout, venereal disease, incontinence, cramps, insomnia, epilepsy, alcohol withdrawal, and asthma.

He showed increasing use of a substance that caused him both physical illness and social and occupational dysfunction. His life was becoming unmanageable because of his excessive use of alcohol. HOW ALCOHOL WORKS Alcohol works by enhancing the function of the neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is responsible for such things as calming and drowsiness. If GABA is enhanced, then neurons become less active. Alcohol may also reduce the effect of glutamate (the primary excitatory Levels of Intoxication* 1–3 drinks** over 1 hour: (blood alcohol content reaches up to 100 mg/100 ml***) • decrease in anxiety and stress • lowering of inhibitions • pleasure/mild euphoria • increased sociability 3–6 drinks over 1 hour: (blood alcohol content reaches between 100–300 mg/100 ml) • dizziness • loss of coordination • poor memory • difficulty standing or staying awake • nausea and vomiting • slurred speech Alcohol and Other Sedatives neurotransmitter), thereby working in two ways to slow down the brain’s activity.

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